Archive for the ‘Research’ Category
Students of the past spent most of their academic time in the library, pouring over encyclopedias, and sifting through pages of data. It’s easy to get lost in a text-heavy reference book, amidst numbers and figures; this is especially true for science majors, whose art and skill revolves around specific numbers and very precise information. Fortunately for today’s scientist, much of the information that was once found only inside the walls of a library is now available online. These awesome science search engines will help you find what exactly what you’re looking for, as well as remind you how much fun research can really be.
Convergence – facilitating Transdisciplinary Integration of Life Sciences, Physical Sciences, Engineering, and Beyond
Convergence is an approach to problem solving that cuts across disciplinary boundaries. It integrates knowledge, tools, and ways of thinking from life and health sciences, physical, mathematical, and computational sciences, engineering disciplines, and beyond to form a comprehensive synthetic framework for tackling scientific and societal challenges that exist at the interfaces of multiple fields. By merging these diverse areas of expertise in a network of partnerships, convergence stimulates innovation from basic science discovery to translational application. It provides fertile ground for new collaborations that engage stakeholders and partners not only from academia, but also from national laboratories, industry, clinical settings, and funding bodies. The concept of convergence as represented in this report is thus meant to capture two closely relatedbut distinct properties: the convergence of expertise necessary to address a set of research problems, and the formation of the web of partnerships involved in supporting such scientific investigations and enabling the resulting advances to be translated into new forms of innovation and new products.
Many institutions are interested in how they can better facilitate convergent research. Despite the presence of established models, however, cultural and institutional roadblocks can still slow the creation of self-sustaining ecosystems of convergence. Institutions often have little guidance on how to establish effective programs, what challenges they might encounter, and what strategies other organizations have used to solve the problems that arise. The present study was undertaken to address this gap. It aims to explore mechanisms used by organizations and programs to support convergent research and provide informed guidance for the community.
The last decades of neuroscience research have produced immense progress in the methods available to understand brain structure and function. Social, cognitive, clinical, affective, economic, communication, and developmental neurosciences have begun to map the relationships between neuro-psychological processes and behavioral outcomes, yielding a new understanding of human behavior and promising interventions. However, a limitation of this fast moving research is that most findings are based on small samples of convenience. Furthermore, our understanding of individual differences may be distorted by unrepresentative samples, undermining findings regarding brain–behavior mechanisms. These limitations are issues that social demographers, epidemiologists, and other population scientists have tackled, with solutions that can be applied to neuroscience. By contrast, nearly all social science disciplines, including social demography, sociology, political science, economics, communication science, and psychology, make assumptions about processes that involve the brain, but have incorporated neural measures to differing, and often limited, degrees; many still treat the brain as a black box. In this article, we describe and promote a perspective — population neuroscience — that leverages interdisciplinary expertise to (i) emphasize the importance of sampling to more clearly define the relevant populations and sampling strategies needed when using neuroscience methods to address such questions; and (ii) deepen understanding of mechanisms within population science by providing insight regarding underlying neural mechanisms. Doing so will increase our confidence in the generalizability of the findings. We provide examples to illustrate the population neuroscience approach for specific types of research questions and discuss the potential for theoretical and applied advances from this approach across areas.
Understanding the human brain is one of the greatest challenges facing 21st century science. If we can rise to the challenge, we can gain profound insights into what makes us human, develop new treatments for brain disease and build revolutionary new computing technologies. Today, for the first time, modern ICT has brought these goals within sight.
The convergence between biology and ICT has reached a point at which it can turn the goal of understanding the human brain into a reality. It is this realisation that motivates the Human Brain Project – an EU Flagship initiative in which over 80 partners will work together to realise a new “ICT-accelerated” vision for brain research and its applications.
One of the major obstacles to understanding the human brain is the fragmentation of brain research and the data it produces. Our most urgent need is thus a concerted international effort that uses emerging ICT technologies to integrate this data in a unified picture of the brain as a single multi-level system.
A low spend on research and development (R&D) by a country may be limiting researchers’ access to academic papers, and could be undermining their productivity and achievements, a report has found.
Limited access to scholarly content, which is a particular problem in developing nations, may have an indirect but negative impact on the number of papers published and Nobel prizes won, according to the ‘Global Research Report‘, published by research collaboration platform Mendeley.
Such links between R&D spending, journal access and achievement highlight the potential benefits of open source academic publishing, particularly in low-income countries, the report says.
Read also: Mendeley Report
ORCID is an open, non-profit, community-based effort to create and maintain a registry of unique researcher identifiers and a transparent method of linking research activities and outputs to these identifiers. ORCID is unique in its ability to reach across disciplines, research sectors, and national boundaries and in its cooperation with other identifier systems. ORCID works with the research community to identify opportunities for integrating ORCID identifiers in key workflows, such as research profile maintenance, manuscript submissions, grant applications, and patent applications.
ORCID provides two core functions: (1) a registry to obtain a unique identifier and manage a record of activities, and (2) APIs that support system-to-system communication and authentication. ORCID makes its code available under an open source license, and will post an annual public data file under a CCO waiver for free download.
Multi-stakeholder collaboration is vital if research is to promote development. The impact of multi-stakeholder projects vital for development are limited by the compartmentalisation of science and researchers’ dislike of crossing disciplinary boundaries. Projects require researchers to work with multiple civil society stakeholders — such as non-governmental organisations, farm unions and the private sector — a complex role that many are unprepared for or unwilling to take on. The newfound capacity of civil society actors to implement development projects means it is now more important than ever that scientists work effectively with them.
Research that is funded by the public should be freely available to all – a move to open access modes of publication is overdue. As a scientist and citizen I want to see the universal adoption of the open access model of academic open-access-publishing, because it will be better for science and better for society.
Open access, where costs are met upfront by the author and papers are free to readers, would improve science by making all published results and ideas easily accessible to researchers across the world and so fuel the engine of discovery. At present, far too much of our research is locked behind paywalls that restrict access and stall progress.