Scholars in the area of Evolutionary Sociology and Biosociology explicitly seek to examine the interplay of social and environmental factors with evolved biological factors and its implications for social behavior. It is a broad area covering a wide array of research topics and methodologies. Neuro sociologists in the area describe the neural circuitry underlying social processes, such as empathy, understanding, and the social creation of the self and self-identity. Other researchers examine the effects of our evolutionary history on emotional processes that influence social behaviors and the implications for humans of comparative primatology. There are researchers examining the role of stress hormones on life course events and the effects of other hormonal levels (e.g., testosterone) on social behaviors as well as the reciprocal effect of social situations on hormonal states. Other researchers examine the correlation between genes and social behaviors and how environments influence gene expression (epigenetics). Researchers using the techniques of behavioral genetics apportion the percentage of variation in social behaviors that can be attributed to genetic factors. Some bio sociologists examine how aspects of human appearance including voice, body, and face influence social interactions. Others test hypotheses drawn from evolutionary biology on aggregate social outcomes.
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