Current theories of connectionism have a hard time explaining how the brain deals with novel situations. An alternative approach of fast hierarchical adaptations could solve some of the conundrums.
So, how do our biological brains resolve novel situations?
We have something that we call working memory. Working memory can store a small piece of novel information, say a phone number. Try it out: read this number: 83095 and try writing it down without looking back. Now try this one 9467251736357048. As you can see, the capacity of our working memory for storing information is quite limited.