Learning Sciences of Change

Learning Change Project: 8 Blogs, +7500 Readings

Archive for the ‘Cognitive neuroscience’ Category

Illusory Memories – A Cognitive Neuroscience Analysis

Memory illusions and distortions have long been of interest to psychology researchers studying memory, but neuropsychologists and neuroscientists have paid relatively little attention to them. This article attempts to lay the foundation for a cognitive neuroscience analysis of memory illusions and distortions by reviewing relevant evidence from a patient with a right frontal lobe lesion, patients with amnesia produced by damage to the medial temporal lobes, normal aging, and healthy young volunteers studied with functional neuroimaging techniques. Particular attention is paid to the contrasting roles of prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe structures in accurate and illusory remembering. Converging evidence suggests that the study of illusory memories can provide a useful tool for delineating the brain processes and systems involved in constructive aspects of remembering.

Read

Written by Giorgio Bertini

February 10, 2016 at 5:39 pm

Family income, Parental Education and Brain structure in Children and Adolescents

Socioeconomic disparities are associated with differences in cognitive development. The extent to which this translates to disparities in brain structure is unclear. We investigated relationships between socioeconomic factors and brain morphometry, independently of genetic ancestry, among a cohort of 1,099 typically developing individuals between 3 and 20 years of age. Income was logarithmically associated with brain surface area. Among children from lower income families, small differences in income were associated with relatively large differences in surface area, whereas, among children from higher income families, similar income increments were associated with smaller differences in surface area. These relationships were most prominent in regions supporting language, reading, executive functions and spatial skills; surface area mediated socioeconomic differences in certain neurocognitive abilities. These data imply that income relates most strongly to brain structure among the most disadvantaged children.

Read

The Psychology and Neuroscience of Curiosity

Curiosity is a basic element of our cognition, but its biological function, mechanisms, and neural underpinning remain poorly understood. It is nonetheless a motivator for learning, influential in decision-making, and crucial for healthy development. One factor limiting our understanding of it is the lack of a widely agreed upon delineation of what is and is not curiosity. Another factor is the dearth of standardized laboratory tasks that manipulate curiosity in the lab. Despite these barriers, recent years have seen a major growth of interest in both the neuroscience and psychology of curiosity. In this Perspective, we advocate for the importance of the field, provide a selective overview of its current state, and describe tasks that are used to study curiosity and information-seeking. We propose that, rather than worry about defining curiosity, it is more helpful to consider the motivations for information-seeking behavior and to study it in its ethological context.

Read

Cortex and Mind: Unifying Cognition

This book presents a unique synthesis of the current neuroscience of cognition by one of the world’s authorities in the field. The guiding principle to this synthesis is the tenet that the entirety of our knowledge is encoded by relations, and thus by connections, in neuronal networks of our cerebral cortex. Cognitive networks develop by experience on a base of widely dispersed modular cell assemblies representing elementary sensations and movements. As they develop cognitive networks organize themselves hierarchically by order of complexity or abstraction of their content. Because networks intersect profusely, a neuronal assembly anywhere in the cortex can be part of many networks, and therefore many items of knowledge. All cognitive functions consist of neural transactions within and between cognitive networks. After reviewing the neurobiology and architecture of cortical networks (also named cognits), the author undertakes a systematic study of cortical dynamics in each of the major cognitive functions–perception, memory, attention, language, and intelligence. In this study, he makes use of a large body of evidence from a variety of methodologies, in the brain of the human as well as the nonhuman primate. The outcome of his interdisciplinary endeavor is the emergence of a structural and dynamic order in the cerebral cortex that, though still sketchy and fragmentary, mirrors with remarkable fidelity the order in the human mind.

Read

Written by Giorgio Bertini

October 9, 2015 at 1:55 pm

Brain Networks and Cognitive Architectures

Most accounts of human cognitive architectures have focused on computational accounts of cognition while making little contact with the study of anatomical structures and physiological processes. A renewed convergence between neurobiology and cognition is well under way. A promising area arises from the overlap between systems/cognitive neuroscience on the one side and the discipline of network science on the other. Neuroscience increasingly adopts network tools and concepts to describe the operation of collections of brain regions. Beyond just providing illustrative metaphors, network science offers a theoretical framework for approaching brain structure and function as a multi-scale system composed of networks of neurons, circuits, nuclei, cortical areas, and systems of areas. This paper views large-scale networks at the level of areas and systems, mostly on the basis of data from human neuroimaging, and how this view of network structure and function has begun to illuminate our understanding of the biological basis of cognitive architectures.

Read

How Curiosity drives Learning

People find it easier to learn about topics that interest them, but little is known about the mechanisms by which intrinsic motivational states affect learning. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate how curiosity (intrinsic motivation to learn) influences memory. In both immediate and one-day-delayed memory tests, participants showed improved memory for information that they were curious about and for incidental material learned during states of high curiosity. Functional magnetic resonance imaging results revealed that activity in the midbrain and the nucleus accumbens was enhanced during states of high curiosity. Importantly, individual variability in curiosity-driven memory benefits for incidental material was supported by anticipatory activity in the midbrain and hippocampus and by functional connectivity between these regions. These findings suggest a link between the mechanisms supporting extrinsic reward motivation and intrinsic curiosity and highlight the importance of stimulating curiosity to create more effective learning experiences.

Read

Read also: How the Power of Interest Drives Learning

How to Stimulate Curiosity

Written by Giorgio Bertini

June 16, 2015 at 12:00 pm

The Cognitive Neuroscience of Social Behaviour

leave a comment »

The potential for cognitive neuroscience to shed light on social behaviour is increasingly being acknowledged and is set to become an important new approach in the field of psychology. Standing at the vanguard of this development, The Cognitive Neuroscience of Social Behaviour provides a state-of-the-art contribution to a subject still in its infancy. Divided into three parts, the book presents an overview of research into neural substrates of social interactions, the cognitive neuroscience of social cognition and human disorders of social behaviour and cognition.

Social Cognitive Neuroscience is the study of the neural mechanisms of social cognition and social interactions in humans and animals. It is also concerned with deficits of socio-cognitive processes in humans, particularly those which have a dedicated neural basis, such as autism, schizophrenia, sociopathy, and depression. This branch of cognitive neuroscience is directed towards understanding complex aspects of social behaviour, such as mentalizing (understanding another’s mental states), empathy, attractiveness, self-awareness, moral reasoning, intentionality, and imitation.

Read

Written by Giorgio Bertini

November 19, 2014 at 11:40 am

Cognitive Neuroscience 2.0 – building a Cumulative Science of Human Brain Function

leave a comment »

Cognitive neuroscientists increasingly recognize that continued progress in understanding human brain function will require not only the acquisition of new data, but also the synthesis and integration of data across studies and laboratories. Here we review ongoing efforts to develop a more cumulative science of human brain function. We discuss the rationale for an increased focus on formal synthesis of the cognitive neuroscience literature, provide an overview of recently developed tools and platforms designed to facilitate the sharing and integration of neuroimaging data, and conclude with a discussion of several emerging developments that hold even greater promise in advancing the study of human brain function.

The explosive growth of human brain mapping over the past two decades has raised important challenges for the field. As the primary literature expands, the need for powerful tools capable of synthesizing and distilling the findings of many different studies grow commensurately. The present article highlighted the benefits of a synthesis oriented research strategy and reviewed several ongoing efforts to facilitate greater integration of the published literature. Going forward, such integration will undoubtedly accelerate progress in elucidating the neural mechanisms that support the full range of human thought, feeling, and action in health and disease. There is every reason to push forward energetically on efforts to develop a cumulative science of human brain function.

Read

Written by Giorgio Bertini

November 19, 2014 at 11:15 am

Bases Neurales de la Décision. Une approche de Neurosciences Cognitives

leave a comment »

Se basant sur les neurosciences, l’auteur passe successivement en revue divers problèmes relatifs à la décision: décision et raison, décision et regard, décision et inhibition, décision et double, décision et anticipation, décision et émotion, décision et interactions ou normes sociales (compétition entre émotion et cognition, changement de point de vue, sympathie et empathie). Il conclut son exposé en soulignant que dans tous ces processus neurophysiologiques et psychologiques extrêmement complexes et interactifs, il faut tenir compte en plus des différences interindividuelles liées à l’âge, l’expérience, le sexe.

Lire

Written by Giorgio Bertini

June 3, 2014 at 9:43 pm

The Cognitive Neuroscience of Creativity: A Critical Review

leave a comment »

Cognitive neuroscience studies of creativity have appeared with increasing frequently in recent years. Yet to date, no comprehensive and critical review of these studies has yet been published. The first part of this article presents a quick overview of the 3 primary methodologies used by cognitive neuroscientists: electroencephalography (EEG), positron emission tomography (PET), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The second part provides a comprehensive review of cognitive neuroscience studies of creativity-related cognitive processes. The third part critically examines these studies; the goal is to be extremely clear about exactly what interpretations can appropriately be made of these studies. The conclusion provides recommendations for future research collaborations between creativity researchers and cognitive neuroscientists.

Read

Written by Giorgio Bertini

July 13, 2012 at 10:55 am

Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 93 other followers