Archive for the ‘Evolution’ Category
For many, music exists to express emotions. Music stimulates both psychological mood and physiological changes including heart rate and breathing. Music can help anxiety. It drives the body with loud, fast music making people lively and promoting dance. Slow, soft music can make people calm or sad. Are these inherent responses to music or are they culturally learned? To find out we must look at the brain responses to music emotion and evolution.
There are many characteristics of music affecting our emotions. Sad music seems to use a lower pitch, smooth transitions, and low intensity movements. Happy music appears to use loud, fast and high pitch, associated with rapid dancers high-energy movements used for dancing. While music effects physiological system, it also stimulates the reward centers. In fact, music can be addictive, bringing great rewards in the excitement of playing live music, dancing at live concerts, and just listening to that favorite song over and over. Music is great to one person, offensive to another.
The evolution of human intelligence refers to a set of theories that attempt to explain how human intelligence has evolved. These theories are closely tied to the evolution of the human brain and to the emergence of human language.
The timeline of human evolution spans approximately 7 million years, from the separation of the Pan genus until the emergence of behavioral modernity by 50,000 years ago. The first 3 million years of this timeline concern Sahelanthropus, the following 2 million concern Australopithecus and the final 2 million span the history of actual human species (the Paleolithic).
Many traits of human intelligence, such as empathy, theory of mind, mourning, ritual, and the use of symbols and tools, are already apparent in great apes although in lesser sophistication than in humans.
Read also: Evolution of the brain and intelligence
Paleoanthropologists from the University of Zurich have uncovered the intact skull of an early Homo individual in Dmanisi, Georgia. This find is forcing a change in perspective in the field of paleoanthropology: human species diversity two million years ago was much smaller than presumed thus far. However, diversity within the “Homo erectus,” the first global species of human, was as great as in humans today.
This shows the need for a change in perspective: the African fossils from around 1.8 million years ago likely represent representatives from one and the same species, best described as “Homo erectus.” This would suggest that “Homo erectus” evolved about 2 million years ago in Africa, and soon expanded through Eurasia — via places such as Dmanisi — as far as China and Java, where it is first documented from about 1.2 million years ago. Comparing diversity patterns in Africa, Eurasia and East Asia provides clues on the population biology of this first global human species.
This makes Homo erectus the first “global player” in human evolution.
La depresión solía tener una función adaptativa en la banda de homínidos, que se pierde en la gran ciudad, y termina volviéndose una enfermedad crónica. La depresión es una adaptación biopsicológica que evolucionó en los primates sociales, y que está asociada con varios cambios en la química del cerebro. Los niveles de serotonina bajan en primates estudiados en laboratorio que han perdido su status dentro de la jerarquía. La serotonina es un neurotransmisor que, entre otras cosas, inhibe la transmisión de los impulsos nerviosos. Es la rival de la adrenalina y de la dopamina.
Nuestro género se ha adaptado durante miles y millones de años a una vida que ha cambiado muchísimo en tan sólo unos pocos siglos. Vivir en el ambiente atestado de las ciudades es como si nos hubiesen colocado dentro de zoológicos. Esto nos predispone a enfermedades físicas y mentales. A pesar de todo lo que tenemos, la depresión es tan común que se habla de epidemia en muchos países. Pero no es la acumulación lo que nos lleva a la depresión, sino lo que hemos perdido.
OneZoom is committed to heightening awareness about the diversity of life on earth, its evolutionary history and the threats of extinction. This website allows you to explore the tree of life in a completely new way: it’s like a map, everything is on one page, all you have to do is zoom in and out. OneZoom also provides free, open source, data visualisation tools for science and education, currently focusing on the tree of life. You can create visualisations of your own data as well as explore ones we have made.
Professor Bloom discussion of emotions as useful evolutionary adaptations for dealing with our social environment, describes evolutionary explanations for several important emotional responses, such as the love between parents and their offspring, the gratitude we feel towards cooperative behaviors, the spite we feel for cheaters, and the cultural differences in feelings of revenge.
From the most celebrated heir to Darwin comes a groundbreaking book on evolution, the summa work of Edward O. Wilson‘s legendary career.
Where did we come from? What are we? Where are we going? In a generational work of clarity and passion, one of our greatest living scientists directly addresses these three fundamental questions of religion, philosophy, and science while “overturning the famous theory that evolution naturally encourages creatures to put family first”. Refashioning the story of human evolution in a work that is certain to generate headlines, Wilson draws on his remarkable knowledge of biology and social behavior to show that group selection, not kin selection, is the primary driving force of human evolution. He proves that history makes no sense without prehistory, and prehistory makes no sense without biology. Demonstrating that the sources of morality, religion, and the creative arts are fundamentally biological in nature, Wilson presents us with the clearest explanation ever produced as to the origin of the human condition and why it resulted in our domination of the Earth’s biosphere.
If placebo medicine can induce people to release hidden healing resources, are there other ways in which the cultural environment can “give permission” to people to come out of their shells and to do things they wouldn’t have done in the past? Can cultural signals encourage people to reveal sides of their personality or faculties that they wouldn’t have dared to reveal in the past? Or for that matter can culture block them? There’s good reason to think this is in fact our history.
I’ve come round to the idea that humans have in fact evolved a full-blown self management system, with the job of managing all their psychological resources put together, so as to optimise the persona they present to the world.
It traces the dramatic history of life on earth from its very beginnings, some 3.5 billion years ago, to the final emergence of man and the array of animals that share the world with us today.
Life On Earth began a new era in television, looking at the incredible variety of the world’s wildlife and its evolution. David Attenborough and his talented team of cameramen, producers and scientific advisers bring to the screen some quite remarkable images, which have a lasting impact on any audience. This series was the biggest ever undertaken by the Natural History Unit at the time, using over a million feet of film and 100 locations.
According to Graves, humanity is indeed making a momentous leap in consciousness, which is characterized in part by the re-emergence of archaic themes. One of these themes is tribalism; not a regression to ancient tribalism, but the emergence of one global tribe.
Graves described human development as ‘an unfolding, emergent, oscillating, spiraling process’ marked by progressive movement upwards through increasingly complex stages. This upward movement is an adaptive response to our changing life conditions. So as our lives become more complex, we are prompted to develop higher, more complex thinking and behaviors in order to cope.
One of the special gifts Dr Graves brought to the field of developmental psychology was his ability at pattern recognition. He discovered that the same change process and the same stages of development can be seen in the evolution of our species, from hunter-gatherer to the present day; in the development of an individual from infant to adult, and also in the development of social groups. Like a fractal, the same pattern shows up at all scales.