Learning Sciences of Change

Learning Change Project: 8 Blogs, +7500 Readings

Archive for the ‘Memory’ Category

REM, not Incubation, improves Creativity by priming Associative Networks

The hypothesized role of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which is rich in dreams, in the formation of new associations, has remained anecdotal. We examined the role of REM on creative problem solving, with the Remote Associates Test (RAT). Using a nap paradigm, we manipulated various conditions of prior exposure to elements of a creative problem. Compared with quiet rest and non-REM sleep, REM enhanced the formation of associative networks and the integration of unassociated information. Furthermore, these REM sleep benefits were not the result of an improved memory for the primed items. This study shows that compared with quiet rest and non-REM sleep, REM enhances the integration of unassociated information for creative problem solving, a process, we hypothesize, that is facilitated by cholinergic and noradrenergic neuromodulation during REM sleep.

Read

Written by Giorgio Bertini

February 10, 2016 at 6:34 pm

Illusory Memories – A Cognitive Neuroscience Analysis

Memory illusions and distortions have long been of interest to psychology researchers studying memory, but neuropsychologists and neuroscientists have paid relatively little attention to them. This article attempts to lay the foundation for a cognitive neuroscience analysis of memory illusions and distortions by reviewing relevant evidence from a patient with a right frontal lobe lesion, patients with amnesia produced by damage to the medial temporal lobes, normal aging, and healthy young volunteers studied with functional neuroimaging techniques. Particular attention is paid to the contrasting roles of prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe structures in accurate and illusory remembering. Converging evidence suggests that the study of illusory memories can provide a useful tool for delineating the brain processes and systems involved in constructive aspects of remembering.

Read

Written by Giorgio Bertini

February 10, 2016 at 5:39 pm

Curiosity helps Learning and Memory

Curiosity helps us learn about a topic, and being in a curious state also helps the brain memorize unrelated information, according to researchers at the UC Davis Center for Neuroscience. Work published Oct. 2 in the journal Neuron provides insight into how piquing our curiosity changes our brains, and could help scientists find ways to enhance overall learning and memory in both healthy individuals and those with neurological conditions. “Our findings potentially have far-reaching implications for the public because they reveal insights into how a form of intrinsic motivation — curiosity — affects memory. These findings suggest ways to enhance learning in the classroom and other settings,”

Read

Written by Giorgio Bertini

November 3, 2014 at 11:14 pm

Posted in Curiosity, Learning, Memory

Tagged with , ,

Why Is Memory So Good and So Bad?

leave a comment »

Memories of visual images are stored in what is called visual memory. Our minds use visual memory to perform even the simplest of computations; from remembering the face of someone we’ve just met, to remembering what time it was last we checked. Without visual memory, we wouldn’t be able to store—and later retrieve—anything we see. Just as a computer’s memory capacity constrains its abilities, visual memory capacity has been correlated with a number of higher cognitive abilities, including academic success, fluid intelligence (the ability to solve novel problems), and general comprehension.

For many reasons, then, it would be very useful to understand how visual memory facilitates these mental operations, as well as constrains our ability to perform them. Yet although these big questions have long been debated, we are only now beginning to answer them.

Read

Written by Giorgio Bertini

June 7, 2012 at 1:25 pm

Posted in Memory

Tagged with

The Pitfalls of Intuition and Memory

leave a comment »

Nobel Prize-winning psychologist Daniel Kahneman discusses the innate weakness of human thought, deceptive memories and the misleading power of intuition.

Psychologists distinguish between a “System 1” and a “System 2,” which control our actions. System 1 represents what we may call intuition. It tirelessly provides us with quick impressions, intentions and feelings. System 2, on the other hand, represents reason, self-control and intelligence.

Every experience is given a score in your memory: good, bad, worse. And that’s completely independent of its duration. Only two things matter here: the peaks — that is, the worst or best moments — and the outcome. How did it end up?

Read

Written by Giorgio Bertini

May 30, 2012 at 1:00 pm

Posted in Intuition, Memory

Tagged with ,

How Memory is Encoded in the Brain

leave a comment »

While it’s generally accepted that memories are stored somewhere, somehow in our brains, the exact process has never been entirely understood. Strengthened synaptic connections between neurons definitely have something to do with it, although the synaptic membranes involved are constantly degrading and being replaced – this seems to be somewhat at odds with the fact that some memories can last for a person’s lifetime. Now, a team of scientists believe that they may have figured out what’s going on.

Memory is understood as strengthened synaptic connections among neurons. Paradoxically components of synaptic membranes are relatively short-lived and frequently re-cycled while memories can last a lifetime. This suggests synaptic information is encoded at a deeper, finer-grained scale of molecular information within post-synaptic neurons. Long-term memory requires genetic expression, protein synthesis, and delivery of new synaptic components. How are these changes guided on the molecular level?

Read

Written by Giorgio Bertini

March 22, 2012 at 3:00 pm

Posted in Brains, Memory

Tagged with ,

Scientists identify neural activity sequences that help form memory, decision-making

leave a comment »

Princeton University researchers have used a novel virtual reality and brain imaging system to detect a form of neural activity underlying how the brain forms short-term memories that are used in making decisions.

By following the brain activity of mice as they navigated a virtual reality maze, the researchers found that populations of neurons fire in distinctive sequences when the brain is holding a memory. Previous research centered on the idea that populations of neurons fire together with similar patterns to each other during the memory period.

Read

Written by Giorgio Bertini

March 15, 2012 at 1:24 pm

Posted in Brains, Memory

Tagged with ,

Mapping Memory in the Brain

leave a comment »

Eric R. Kandel, Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator, probes into the mind to demonstrate how it is much more complex than just a series of processes carried out by the brain. The brain produces our every emotional, intellectual and athletic act. It allows us to acquire new facts and skills, and to remember them for as long as a lifetime. Memory exists in two major forms, each located in different brain regions. Explicit memory is for people, places, and objects. In contrast, implicit memory serves perceptual and motor skills. In concert, these two memory systems help make us who we are.

View

Written by Giorgio Bertini

February 22, 2012 at 3:30 pm

Posted in Brains, Memory, Mind

Tagged with , ,

People forage for memories in the same way birds forage for berries

leave a comment »

Humans move between ‘patches’ in their memory using the same strategy as bees flitting between flowers for pollen or birds searching among bushes for berries.

Researchers at the University of Warwick and Indiana University have identified parallels between animals looking for food in the wild and humans searching for items within their memory – suggesting that people with the best ‘memory foraging’ strategies are better at recalling items.

Read

Written by Giorgio Bertini

February 20, 2012 at 2:30 pm

Posted in Memory

Tagged with

The complex relationship between memory and silence

leave a comment »

People who suffer a traumatic experience often don’t talk about it, and many forget it over time. But not talking about something doesn’t always mean you’ll forget it; if you try to force yourself not to think about white bears, soon you’ll be imagining polar bears doing the polka. A group of psychological scientists explore the relationship between silence and memories in a new paper published in Perspectives on Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science.

Read

Written by Giorgio Bertini

February 5, 2012 at 1:25 pm

Posted in Memory

Tagged with

Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 92 other followers