Although the knowledge base regarding children’s responses to trauma and adverse events in general has been expanding, descriptions of their responses during epidemics remain scarce. Yet their vulnerability makes this an important group to study. Several studies have documented the damaging effects of psychological stress due to negative events in children. Anxiety, depression, lethargy, impaired social interaction, and reduced appetite are commonly reported manifestations. Physiological effects include a weakened or compromised immune system. In the course of adverse events, children are often forced to stay home for long periods due to enforced isolation and school closure, resulting in limited connection with classmates and reduced physical activity.
The Need for Prevention and Early Intervention. Since the first case of novel coronavirus disease 2019 TheworldwideCOVID-19 pandemic, and efforts to contain it, represent a unique threat, andwe must recognize the pandemic that will quickly follow it—that of mental and behavioral illness—and implement the steps needed to mitigate it.
While these steps may be critical to mitigate the spread of this disease, they will undoubtedly have consequences for mental health and well-being in both the short and long term. These consequences are of sufficient importance that immediate efforts focused on prevention and direct intervention are needed to address the impact of the outbreak on individual and population level mental health.
The impact of COVID-19 on mental health
COVID-19 and mental health: A review of the existing literature
• In an emergency situation it is possible to put in place a remote MT support intervention. • Clinical Staff define this structured intervention as empathic, supportive and professional. • MTps were able to create a remote therapeutic relationship with Clinical staff (CS). • Self-administration of music by CS would not have been enough to achieve the objective of the present study. • Few studies have been conducted so far with a focus on MT support to CS assisting COVID patients.
The influence of music therapy (MT) as a support intervention to reduce stress and improve wellbeing in Clinical Staff (CS) working with COVID-19 patients was evaluated. Participants were enrolled as a result of spontaneous agreement (n = 34) and were given remote receptive MT intervention over a 5-week period. Their levels of tiredness, sadness, fear and worry were measured with MTC-Q1 before and after MT intervention. An immediate significant variation in the CS emotional status was observed. The results seem to confirm that in an emergency situation, it is possible to put in place a remote MT support intervention for CS exposed to highly stressful situations.
Understanding neural mechanisms of social interaction is important for understanding human social nature and for developing treatments for social deficits related to disorders such as autism. However, conventional cognitive and behavioral neuroscience has concentrated on developing novel experimental paradigms and investigating human–computer interactions, rather than studying interpersonal interaction per se. To fully understand neural mechanisms of human interpersonal interaction, we will likely have to investigate human behavior and neural processes in face-to-face social interaction rather than human–computer interaction. Recently, simultaneous EEG or functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has been used to record brain activity of two participants in a face-to-face setting (i.e., hyperscanning) to investigate human social interaction in a more naturalistic context (Jiang et al., 2012; Yun et al., 2012).
Conversations are an essential form of communication in daily family life. Specific patterns of caregiver-child conversations have been linked to children‟s socio-cognitive development and child relationship quality beyond the immediate family environment. Recently, interpersonal neural synchronization has been proposed as a neural mechanism supporting conversation. Here, we present a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) hyperscanning study looking at the temporal dynamics of neural synchrony during mother-child conversation. Preschoolers (20 boys and 20 girls; M age 5;07 years) and their mothers (M age 36.37 years) were tested simultaneously with fNIRS hyperscanning while engaging in a free verbal conversation lasting for four minutes. Neural synchrony (using wavelet transform coherence analysis) was assessed over time. Furthermore, each conversational turn was coded for conversation patterns comprising turn-taking, relevance, contingency, and intrusiveness. Results from linear mixed-effects modeling revealed that turntaking, but not relevance, contingency, or intrusiveness predicted neural synchronization during the conversation over time. Results are discussed to point out possible variables affecting parent-child conversation quality and the potential functional role of interpersonal neural synchronization for parent-child conversation.
The Phenomenological Mind is the first book to properly introduce fundamental questions about the mind from the perspective of phenomenology. Key questions and topics covered include:
• what is phenomenology?
• naturalizing phenomenology and the cognitive sciences
• phenomenology and consciousness
• consciousness and self-consciousness
• time and consciousness
• the embodied mind
• knowledge of other minds
• situated and extended minds
• phenomenology and personal identity.
This second edition includes a new preface, and revised and improved chapters. Also included are helpful features such as chapter summaries, guides to further reading, and a glossary, making The Phenomenological Mind an ideal introduction to key concepts in phenomenology, cognitive science and philosophy of mind.
The first book in English to examine in detail the scientific work of 19th-century Russian evolutionists, and the first in any language to explore the relationship of their theories to their economic, political, and natural milieu.
This book addresses one episode in this drama by examining the crosscultural transmission of a metaphor in scientific thought. Specifically, it explores the fate of an expression—the “struggle for existence”—utilized by a member of one culture, the Englishman Charles Darwin, to explain his selection theory to members of a quite different culture, the intellectuals of tsarist Russia.